1 a sign posted in a public place as an advertisement; "a poster advertised the coming attractions" [syn: posting, placard, notice, bill, card]
3 a horse kept at an inn or post house for use by mail carriers or for rent to travelers [syn: post horse]
- Rhymes: -əʊstə(r)
- An advertisement attached to
wall to advertise something.
- I saw a poster for it on the side of a bus.
- A picture of a celebrity, an activity, etc., that one likes,
intended to be attached to a wall.
- He has a poster of his favorite band up.
- (slang) A shot which hits the post of the goal and does not go
- We got three posters in the third and lost.
- A person who posts.
picture of celebrity, etc., that one likes
- Swedish: stolpe ut
- SAMPA: /pOs.te/
- poster; picture of celebrity, activity etc.
- sv-noun-form-indef-pl post
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly textual. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and convey information. Posters may be used for many purposes, and they are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, musicians and films), propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message. Posters are also used for reproductions of artwork, particularly famous works.. Another type of poster are educational posters, which may be about a particular subject for educational purposes. Related to these are academic or conference are generally low-cost compared to original artwork. Many people also collect posters, and some famous posters have themselves become quite valuable, collectors and vintage posters are usually framed and matted. Posters may be any size.
Poster historyPosters, in the form of placards and posted bills, have been used for a long time, primarily for advertising and announcements. Purely textual posters have a long history: they advertised the plays of Shakespeare and made citizens aware of government proclamations for centuries. However, the great revolution in posters was the development of printing techniques that allowed for cheap mass production and printing, including notably the technique lithography which was invented in 1796 by the German Alois Senefelder. The invention of lithography was soon followed by chromolithography, which allowed for mass editions of posters illustrated in vibrant colors to be printed.
By the 1890s, the technique had spread throughout Europe. A number of noted artists created poster art in this period, foremost amongst them Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Jules Chéret. Chéret is considered to be the "father" of advertisement placards. He was a pencil artist and a scene decorator, who founded a small lithography office in Paris in 1866. He used striking characters, contrast and bright colors, and created over 1000 advertisements, primarily for exhibitions, theatres, and products. The industry soon attracted the service of many aspiring painters who needed a source of revenue to support themselves. Posters soon transformed the thoroughfares of Paris into the "art galleries of the street." Their commercial success was such that some of the artists were in great demand and theatre stars personally selected their own favorite artist to do the poster for an upcoming performance. The popularity of poster art was such that in 1884 a major exhibition was held in Paris. By the 1890s, poster art had widespread usage in other parts of Europe, advertising everything from bicycles to bullfights. By the end of the 19th century, during an era known as the Belle Époque, the standing of the poster as a serious artform was raised even further. Between 1895 and 1900, Jules Chéret created the Maîtres de l'Affiche (Masters of the Poster) series that became not only a commercial success, but is now seen as an important historical publication. Alphonse Mucha and Eugène Grasset were also influential poster designers of this generation, known for their Art Nouveau style and stylized figures, particularly of women. Advertisement posters became a special type of graphic art in the modern age. Poster artists such as Théophile Steinlen, Albert Guillaume, Leonetto Cappiello and others became important figures of their day, their art form transferred to magazines for advertising as well as for social and political commentary.
In the United States, posters did not evolve to the same artistic level. American posters were primarily directed towards basic commercial needs to deliver a written message. However, the advent of the travelling circus brought colorful posters to tell citizens that a carnival was coming to town. But these too were very commercially utilitarian, of average quality, and few saw any real artistic creativity.
Many posters have had great artistic merit and have become extremely collectible. These include the posters advertising World's Fairs and Colonial Exhibitions.
Other times of great turmoil also produced great posters. The 1960s saw the rise of pop art and protest movements throughout the West; both made great use of posters. Perhaps the most acclaimed posters were those produced by French students during the so-called "événements" of May 1968.
Poster printingMany printing techniques are used to produce posters. While most posters are mass-produced, posters may also be printed by hand or in limited editions. Most posters are printed on one side and left blank on the back, the better for affixing to a wall or other surface. Pin-up sized posters are usually printed on A3 Standard Silk paper in full colour.
It is possible to use poster creation software to print large posters on standard home or office printers.
Types of posters
Propaganda and political postersDuring the First and Second World Wars, recruiting posters became extremely common, and many of them have persisted in the national consciousness, such as the "Lord Kitchener Wants You" posters from the United Kingdom, the "Uncle Sam wants you" posters from the United States, or the "Loose Lips Sink Ships" postershttp://www.mlcsmith.com/graphics/not_mine/tits.html that warned of foreign spies. Posters during wartime were also used for propaganda purposes, persuasion, and motivation, such as the famous Rosie the Riveter posters which exhorted women workers during World War II that "We can do it!". The Soviet Union also produced a plethora of propaganda postershttp://posters.nce.buttobi.net, some of which became iconic representations of the Great Patriotic War. During the democratic revolutions of 1989 in Central and Eastern Europe the poster was very important weapon in the hand of the opposition. Brave printed and hand-made political posters appeared on the Berlin Wall, on the statue of St. Wenseslas in Prague and around the unmarked grave of Imre Nagy in Budapest and the role of them was indispensable for the democratic change.
Advertising postersMany posters, particularly early posters, were used for advertising products. Posters continue to be used for this purpose, with posters advertising films, music (both concerts and recorded albums) and comic books being particularly notable examples.
- Main article: Film poster
Comic book postersThe resurgence of comic book popularity in the 1960s led to the mass production of comic book posters in the 1970s and onward. These posters typically feature popular characters in a variety of action poses. The fact that comic books are a niche market means that a given poster usually has a smaller printing run than other genres of poster. Therefore, older posters may be quite sought after by collectors. Promotional posters are usually distributed folded, whereas retail posters intended for home decoration are rolled.
Event postersPosters advertising events have become common. Any sort of public event, from a rally to a play, may be advertised with posters; a few types of events have become notable for their poster advertisements.
Boxing postersBoxing Posters were used in and around the actual venue to advertise the forthcoming fight, date, ticket prices, and usually consisted of pictures of each boxer. Boxing Posters vary in size and vibrancy, but are not usually smaller than 18x22 inches. In the early days few boxing posters survived the actual event and thus they are indeed very collectible and scarce.
Concert postersMany concerts, particularly rock concerts, have custom-designed posters that are used for advertisement of the event. These often become collectors items as well.
Research posters and "poster sessions"Posters are used in academia to promote and explain research work. They are typically shown during conferences, either as a complement to a talk or scientific paper, or as a publication. They are of lesser importance than actual articles, but they can be a good introduction to a new piece of research before the paper is published. Poster presentations are often not peer-reviewed, but can instead be submitted, meaning that as many as can fit will be accepted.
Classroom postersMost classrooms in North American schools have posters on the walls. There are several types of these posters:
- Books on poster, in which entire works of literature are legibly printed onto single posters.
- Motivational posters, similar to those found in offices or specific to the class subject matter.
- Quick reference posters: In elementary schools, these usually include first-language vocabulary charts (numbers, colours, weather, etc.) and multiplication tables. In secondary and post-secondary schools, they are more likely to include second-language vocabulary charts, the standard periodic table and related graphs, and laboratory safety protocols. A world map and one or more regional maps are common at all levels.
- Advertising posters for products used or discussed in the class (e.g. movie posters in a film class).
- Pseudo-advertising posters for sports, works of classic literature, etc.
- Posters giving more detailed information on a subject, usually containing paragraph-form text, in relatively small print.
The latter two types are sometimes prepared by students as part of an assignment, but most posters are usually store-bought.
OtherVintage Poster Restoration/Conservation
The backing of posters with fabric dates back to 19th century France, where posters were occasionally glued to linen for reinforcement. This provided some protection, but with the passage of time the paper continued to become brittle and was frequently torn by stress. Modern backing techniques have eliminated this problem by using an acid free paper between the poster and the fabric. The adhesive used is wheat paste treated to inhibit mold growth. Why fabric-back a poster? The principal reason is to provide support for the paper. It also enables the conservator to flatten the folds and to more easily make repairs. Fabric backing also eliminates the waviness that can occur when the poster is framed.
Reversibility is a concept that is important in all conservation work, because today's curators and collectors are only temporary custodians of a cultural object (the poster) that will have continuing and timeless interest for future collectors. We strive to make certain that materials and techniques that are applied to the poster are not harmful over time and are reversible to bring it back to the state in which we found it.
Restoration can dramatically improve the appearance of a poster. Damage caused by clear adhesive tape, residual stains, water marks and dirt can be easily repaired; combining this with the replacement of lost paper can bring the poster back to virtually its original state.
Cheesecake postersCheesecake posters, or "pinups," are pictures of attractive women designed to be displayed, first coming to popularity in the 1920s. The popularity of sexy Pin-up girl posters has been erratic in recent decades. Pin-ups such as Betty Grable and Jane Russell were highly popular with soldiers during World War II but much less so during the Vietnam War. The late 1970s and into the beginning of the 1980s were boom years for large posters of television actresses, especially Farrah Fawcett and Cheryl Tiegs.
FanposterThe goal of creating a Fanposter is to show all or a large portion of devoted fans on one poster which will be presented and can be seen in a place where many other fans or members have access (hallway of a club house, fanzine, fan webpage, public place).
Affirmation postersThis refers to decorative posters that are meant to be motivational and inspirational. One popular series has a black background, a scene from nature, and a word such as "Leadership" or "Opportunity." Another version (usually framed and matted) uses a two-image hologram which changes as the viewer walks past.
Band/Music postersPosters that showcase a person's favorite artist or music group are popular in teenager's bedrooms, as well as in college dorm rooms and apartments. Many posters have pictures of popular rock bands and artists.
Notable poster artists
- Jules Chéret (1836-1932)
- Achille Mauzan (1883-1952)
- Róbert Berény (1887-1954)
- Sándor Bortnyik (1893-1976)
- Firmin Bouisset (1859-1925)
- Leonetto Cappiello (1875-1942)
- Jean Carlu (1900-1997)
- Gino Boccasile (1901-1952)
- Adolphe Mouron Cassandre (1901-1968)
- Paul Colin (1892-1985)
- Tom Eckersley (1914-1995)
- John Gilroy (1898-1985)
- Eugène Grasset (1845-1917)
- David Lance Goines (1945-present)
- Albert Guillaume (1873-1942)
- Privat Livemont (1861-1936)
- Alfons Mucha (1860-1939)
- Raymond Savignac (1907-2002)
- Théophile Steinlen (1859-1923)
- Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901)
- Tadeusz Gronowski (1894-1990) (:pl:Tadeusz Gronowski)
Contemporary poster artists
- Gosling, Peter. (1999). Scientist's Guide to Poster Presentations. New York: Kluwer. ISBN 0-306-46076-9.
- King, Emily. (2003). A Century of Movie Posters: From Silent to Art House. Barron's. ISBN 0-7641-5599-7.
- Noble, Ian. (2002). Up Against the Wall: International Poster Design. Mies, Switzerland: RotoVision. ISBN 2-88046-561-3.
- Timmers, Margaret. (2003). Power of the Poster. Victoria and Albert Museum. ISBN 0-8109-6615-8.
- Visual Arts Data Service (VADS) Over 100,000 images available free for use in education, including thousands of posters from the UK's Imperial War Museum and the Design Council collections.
- Poster Archive of the MAK-Austrian Museum of applied arts / contemporary art
- Ad-Free Movie Poster Informational Site
- The International Poster Collection (exhibition galleries from the Colorado State Libraries and the Department of Art)
- Rene Wanner's Poster Page
- Posters, American Style (exhibition and educational site from the Smithsonian American Art Museum)
- Les Purs Canayens: Canadian Posters of the First World War - Canadian War Museum
- Powers of Persuasion: Poster Art from World War II
- WWI and WWII Poster Collection hosted by the University of North Texas Libraries' Digital Collections. Search and browse through almost 500 posters.
- University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections - War Posters A selection of World War I and II posters; topics include propaganda on purchasing war bonds, the importance of national security and posters from allied and axis powers.
- The Chairman Smiles: Posters from the former Soviet Union, Cuba and China
- Chinese Cultural Revolution Propaganda Poster
poster in Arabic: ملصق
poster in Aymara: Yatiqawi laphi
poster in Catalan: Cartell
poster in Czech: Plakát
poster in German: Plakat
poster in Modern Greek (1453-): Αφίσα
poster in Spanish: Póster
poster in Esperanto: Afiŝo
poster in French: Affiche
poster in Croatian: Plakat
poster in Indonesian: Poster
poster in Italian: Poster
poster in Hebrew: כרזה
poster in Lithuanian: Afiša
poster in Hungarian: Plakát
poster in Dutch: Poster (kunst)
poster in Japanese: ポスター
poster in Norwegian: Plakat
poster in Polish: Plakat
poster in Portuguese: Cartaz
poster in Romanian: Poster
poster in Russian: Плакат
poster in Simple English: Poster
poster in Slovenian: Plakat
poster in Finnish: Juliste
poster in Swedish: Affisch
poster in Thai: โปสเตอร์
advertisement, affiche, announcement, banner, bill, billboard, broadside, carrier, carrier pigeon, circular, flier, handbill, homer, homing pigeon, mail car, mail coach, mail packet, mail train, mail truck, mailer, mailplane, notice, packet boat, pigeon post, placard, post boat, post car, post coach, post-horse, post-office car, railway mail car, sign, signboard